History 104A, October 10: Hail Caesar & Caesar & Caesar


               I repeat -- one, no classes on Columbus day, October 12th.  The


          class is today, the ugly Columbus day because -- I hate it that they


          change these dates to the weekends so all you people can be lazy and


          get a day off from school and get a three day weekend.


          A    There's nothing wrong with that.


               THE PROFESSOR:  And the year Columbus discovered America?


          A    1992.


               THE PROFESSOR:  He didn't discover it.  It was here; right?  So


          we call it a violation of the prime directive.  Once again, there is


          no school on October 12th for me, for this class only.  I'll be in my


          other classes.  I will not be here and I will send out an e-mail to


          remind you October 28th is it the Friday?


          A    I don't think anybody has that day.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Yeah.  We don't get off for Halloween.  I'm


          turning into a pumpkin, so now I'm going down to San Diego to see my


          son's soccer team play, so it's absolutely illegal, it's illegitimate


          reason, but I don't hear bitching here too much to get rid of me.


          Q    Is that the Friday or the Monday?


               THE PROFESSOR:  The Friday.  I think that's it procedurally.


               We were talking a bit started out a bit on the life in Rome or


          Roman life generally.  And we're going to continue with the so so


          corny video tape, but at least it's entertaining in a bad way.  And it


          does show various elements of life in Rome.  We'll start out with


          that.  And then I will continue with vomiting.



                                     (showing movie)


               For the dozens of people who came in after we started, we're


          going to be nice to you and let you know that the non-Columbus day


          that's really Columbus day on Wednesday, there will not be class.


          Mark that down in your books.  And that also on October 28th, the


          Friday, there will also not be class.


          Q    Are other classes not meeting?


               THE PROFESSOR:  No just me.  I'll be up here for my other




          Q    I mean today.  You said it was Columbus day?


               THE PROFESSOR:  Columbus day stopped being a holiday for most


          schools when people started being concerned about the violation of the


          prime directive and it's generally not celebrated anymore.  Are there


          any comments on the film or questions about it?


               A couple of points just for a basis of it.  One, people are


          people and I think that's what the film intended to show.  And two,


          the development of a law system that very much our words of our system


          come from, innocent until proven guilty, the concept of equality, the


          anti slavery element, even though it existed.  Translation, a lot of


          things can be written in the law, it's how it's carried out, including


          the whole sense of precedence, customs.  The Roman law was codified a


          number of times.  The one that lasted and came down to us is what we


          call the Fall of Rome.  It came to us from the sixth century AD or CE


          from the Justian code J-U-S-T-I-A-N.  And at that in time, the Roman


          empire, if you will, spread out from Constantinople, Byzantium and



          became the Byzantium empire of Rome, Rome in the East.


               The life in Rome, as it indicated, was difficult.  We talked


          about the bread and circuses.  And I wanted to give some description


          of some other elements of the life including upper and lower class.


          And this part I want to present from a number of elements that I have




               I think I mentioned that the Romans had statues to their


          ancestors and Roman statues to themselves, a little different from the


          Greeks who seem to have the idealization element in their statues,


          their paintings and drawings were much more realistic.  The Roman


          houses were built around an atrium similar to the Mediterranean tile


          in Spain.  Everything was inside the house with the garden in the


          center, not built like we do with our lawns outside and our open


          backwards, except in California where everybody has high fences.  Go


          East and the most amazing think, I think, for most Californians is to


          see no fences to speak of.  Don't ask me why, we out here with our


          individuality demand that sense of privacy.  That's another story.


          The main center of the house was in a sense the dining room.


               Romans loved to eat.  They loved their 20 or 30 courses, meals.


          And they also had a room near the left hand of the dining room, the


          left side by the couch that was called a vomitorium.  They vomit so


          they can eat.  They eat so that they may vomit.  I thought I would


          pick that out for any of you that are bulimic.  Some of the dining


          rooms had recommendations for their guests such as -- do not cast


          wanton glances or ogling eyes at another man's wife, being modest in



          your language.  They were obviously -- mentioned the baths of


          Caracalla.  I want to get back to the house.  Let's get to the


          parties.  I like parties because we mentioned that earlier.


               Romans loved their gathering especially the wealthy.  They were


          sort of like weddings and Barmitzvahs every few weeks spending


          millions of dollars for their guests.  The emperor Tiberius spent


          $4 million on food and drink alone.  It wasn't Tiberius.  It was


          another Roman trying to impress the emperor Tiberius, he spent $4 for


          one party.  He committed suicide after that because he had no money


          left.  ... at a cost of $5,000 a course.  Now, coming from New York, I


          have gone to a couple of Barmitzvahs worth a couple of thousand


          dollars.  One of Nero's friends spent a couple thousand dollars on


          roses.  A feast cost 300,000.  But we must remember that at his


          banquet, he gave to each of his friends gifts which included gold and


          silver dishes.  He gave them beautiful slaves and carriages with teams


          of mules and their drivers.  Roman millionaires loved dissolving


          pearls in vinegar and then drinking them.


               I mentioned the huge baths of Caracalla.  I mentioned the common


          people living in apartment houses that were constructed basically of


          concrete, heavy wooden beams to support the flooring that went as high


          as six stories, and wooden bricks were used for bridging balconies.


          Wood, rubber and stone utilized to make attractive facing.  The risers


          were of stone or wood, windows and balconies were decked with pots and


          flowers.  Fires continuously breaking out.  There was a combined fire


          fighting force of about 7,000.  The fire fighting equipment of course



          was not inadequate.  The great fire of 64 AD and the reign of Nero


          devastated 10 of 14 regions of Rome.  And of these ten, three were


          almost completely destroyed.  Since the tenements were often Jerry


          built and since, by law, the walls cannot be more than 18-inches in


          thickness, the building sometimes collapsed under their own weight.


          Roman builders so excellent in their public structures, paid little


          attention, surprise surprise to the permanence in low class housing.


               Now, of course many of you have heard the story of Nero fiddling


          when Rome burned. it is highly unlikely since they didn't have the


          fiddle, but it is possibly that he did play the harp or an instrument


          similar to the harp.  Yes, he was a little off the deep end as were a


          number of Roman emperors like Caligilar who made a horse his a


          senator, declared himself God and his sister as Hera, and later killed


          her personally and turned the palace into a brothel insisting that all


          the senators wives serve as prostitutes, collected money to help pay


          off the debt of Rome.  Not a bad idea maybe.  Well, get rid of the


          debt that we are now in trillions of dollars now, I suppose.


               The Roman wealthy also imported ice from the Alps.  They brought


          it down, packed in straw, and their drinks were made with ice.  They


          did not have refrigeration, no.  Rome was, to say the least, the


          cosmopolitan city with all groups of people all colors, all creeds,


          and as indicated in the video, many people of different races from


          different parts of the world had high positions in the Roman empire.


          The Romans encouraged local self-government.  We talked -- the Romans


          still saw themselves as small landholders and farmers.  Bread and



          circuses.  In 45 BC Julius Caesar found, in Rome, no less than 320,000


          Roman citizens receiving free grain.  From Augustus onward, they


          numbered around 200,000 and must be remembered that these 200,000 were


          adult male, so as women and children must be added to the total.  I


          mentioned the hippodrome and the chariot races and the colors that


          were part and parcel of that era of fighting over which team they were


          going the support.


               Back to projector.  I do have a DVD.  I'm not sure if I'll be


          able to show the whole segment I wanted to on I Claudius on Friday


          because we will have the group meeting on Friday instead of on


          Wednesday.  Be prepared for the group meeting on Friday itself.


               We had talked about the Roman emperors starting of course with


          Octavian becoming the Caesar, if you will, the Augustus in 27 BCE.


          And we go through a series of basically so so emperors.  There is no


          plan in session.  And what we find is that the emperors are really


          appointed by the Pretorian God, the emperor's own elite military.


          Augustus extends the Roman boundaries to pretty much what it finally




               He is followed by Tiberius -- and I'll have those up for you in a


          minute -- who is then followed by that crazy emperor, Caligilar, who


          is followed by a survivor who does the good job, Claudius.  However,


          he is duped by his second wife, Messalina, who he loves dearly.  And I


          think I may have noted that she enjoyed her sexual antics and once had


          a contest with a prostitute in Pompeii to see who could sleep with the


          most men in one night, and she won.  Don't ask me how many.  I'm sure



          it doesn't amount to as many as John Kennedy, based on the stories


          which are phony of course.  And he's followed by his son, basically a


          mistake, Nero who again off the deep end, forces people to listen to


          him sing off tune, kills people for the hell of it, including his


          mother who he kicked off her raft into the sea.


               After Nero's death, we see four emperors in one year.  And his


          palace is destroyed and built on top of his palace ask the famous


          coliseum.  The coliseum which could hold about 40 or 50,000 people, I


          talked about earlier, the site for the games including of course


          humans fighting animals, obviously is most famous perhaps in many of


          your eyes for the Christians and the sacrifice of Christians in the


          various games, but Christians weren't the only ones killed in the


          mausoleum, nor were they the only ones that were buried or hiding in


          the catacombs which is the underground burial areas and tombs


          throughout Rome.  Have any of you been to Rome?  Anybody here?


          A    In German we saw Roman ruins.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Did they have catacombs there?  Burials, areas


          underground where you could walk through?


          A    Yeah.  They just lady to nowhere.  And they were still uncovering


          stuff like we were there.  There were an am fully theater.


               THE PROFESSOR:  And the point they're making is the Romans


          extended their culture, their baths throughout their empire, if you


          will, including of course into England and into the area that


          Alexander had conquered.  The sense of Rome, as I say, around the


          Mediterranean sea.  I want to you show you something that I put up for



          whatever it's worth.


               Once again, I put these in with the lectures on those days.


          They're PowerPoint presentations or at least ways of putting some


          information on-line and Connie, when she sends me the lecture


          transcripts, I stick it in there.  Your textbook gives a fairly good


          feel for the cultures, but different from the one I used in previous


          years.  It doesn't have as much detail, which may or may not be good


          based upon your own interests in history.  So what I have here are the


          Roman emperors, and it keeps coming out different on here than it does


          on my Mac at home.  I played some games.  And for some reason, it's


          totally different here.


               What we see here is the pantheon, the Romans built this


          phenomenal structure with a hole in the center and a tremendous dome


          that wouldn't be matched again until the Renaissance era in building


          with a whole reflecting the universe coming through and around the


          pantheon are the Gods.  These are not the Gods.  These are the


          emperors and there are periods of time.  And they are.  I ran down


          copies from other books, a little summary of the accomplishments of


          each.  So you get a little more detail, not a lot, but a little more.


          And between 96 and 180 in a sense, Rome really does reach its height


          which are known as the five good emperors; a very efficiently run


          empire; however, basically after 180, Marcus Aurelius allows his son


          to go on the throne.  And like the son of many people, his son was


          incompetent.  And with that we move into a year of tremendous decline


          until Diatheses and Constantine at the end of the third and the



          beginning of the fourth century AD.  That's there.  It will be in


          these lecture notes for you to take a look at and get a little more


          detail.  We'll see you on Friday.