History 104A, October 3: RETURN EXAM & ROME-Two Faced!


               I did get to grade them.  It's not bad when I only have one set


          of exams.  I am giving them back.  I will comment a little later on


          them as we go along and explain as best I can what may have occurred


          and give you a good grade or a bad grade or a need work on a grade.


          Please keep a couple of things in mind.  You have three more to make


          up, two more?  Two more.  And then you've got the group meetings.  A


          number of people have not turned in their makeup papers for the last


          one.  The first one they can't do any longer.  And remember, that is


          one-fourth of your grade, and that makes a big difference in the grade


          that I should be getting.  This will help pull it up.  Translation,


          whatever you grade you got on this exam, I would basically triple it,


          add 100 points and divide by four to figure out what your grade would


          be for this semester?  Why?  Because the grades do not change


          dramatically from exam to exam.  The amazing part is grading them by


          social security number and then I see that people are getting the same


          grade, and then I begin to realize at least I'm consistent in my


          grading.  If I were doing it by name, you never know the impact.


          There are some changes and some people go way up and some people go


          way down.  The old coach statement -- don't let it go to your head --


          when you have a good grade; or the other element -- give it the


          college try -- just because you flunked with a zero.  Nobody flunked


          with a zero but there were two failures.  I'll talk more.  I'll let


          you people do the exercise since you're young.  You don't want me to


          collapse on the stairs.



               Happy Ramadan whenever it starts for those that celebrate by not


          eating.  Happy Rosh Hashanah for new year for those who celebrate.


          Happy pre-Halloween.  This is your trick or treat -- never mind.  That


          was bad.  The grades were average which is sort of unusual for my


          grades candidly.  Either you get it or you don't so it a reverse curve


          with a lot of high grades and a lot of low grades.  Most of grades


          here were in the middle which means there's a good chance for


          improvement.  So that you understood the material, but generally meant


          that you didn't know how the write an exam night and my time spending


          what 20-30 minutes talking about certain rules and regulations for


          writing an exam.  I'm fairly sure I mentioned that I told you that


          it's kind of difficult to write a history exam without dates,


          timeframe, references.  And I would say very few of you actually


          through in timeframes or reference.  It is a history exam.  It


          certainly doesn't have to be exact, but you needed to put it in a


          timeframe.  If you're talking ancient Egypt, when are you talking.  If


          you're talking the Celts what part of Europe are they in?  We ran into


          a development of not getting a sense of when things were occurring.


          I'm going to go specifically through the questions more directly.


               The first rule I gave you -- read the question carefully.  Well,


          some of you did, but I was amazed how many of you left out sections of


          the question.  Some of it could have been time, but for many of you


          who took time afterwards, you still did the same thing.  For the


          take-home part of the that you came in to answer, a number of people


          left out India totally.  Now granted, the question in the textbook



          from that chapter and it doesn't include India, but I threw in India


          because I felt it was a major area to cover and get it was not covered


          in some of the essay.  That meant that you didn't really search have


          research it out as far as you should have in preparing it at home.


          Most people didn't take the take home.  And then when you looked at


          the other ones you thought they were easier.  I also came across


          something that I thought was very interesting.  I don't remember which


          questions I have on-line, but from time to time and of course


          certainly the question in the group meeting question was -- would you


          prefer to live in die and Egypt or Mesopotamia?  I changed the dang


          thing for this exam.  I made it -- would you prefer to live?  And then


          would you prefer to live in Mesopotamia.  There were two sections.  I


          was amazed how many people simply took the first section and explained


          why they didn't want to live or die in Mesopotamia which was not my


          question, so you're not reading the question, you're making


          assumptions about it based either on your study or based on previous


          questions that you refer to.  And that definitely caused certain


          grades to drop.


               Let me explain one thing.  My handwriting is poor, like most


          doctors, so my prescription to you may not be readable.  However, one


          I will of course read it to you if need be.  I can't read my own


          handwriting all the time either.  Two, after I go over some of the


          questions with you and go over some of the things I expected, then you


          still would like me to comment further on your exams, I would suggest


          that you come by my office after class or during my office hours on



          Tuesday and Thursday and I'll be happy to go through it more


          thoroughly with you specifically and prepare you for the next exam.  I


          grant that it's difficult sometimes to spell everything out, but the


          general errors that I have expressed and did impact the grades on a


          number of papers dramatically.  If one-fourth of the questions or


          one-fifth is asking about India, you've already dropped 25 percent if


          you don't cover it.  It's hard not to take that into account pause


          you're supposed to cover all elements.  Now, in a couple of place


          where is time was a factor and I realized it by looking at what


          happened, at that point, I really tried to judge and be fair by what


          you wrote at the beginning.  A few of you though -- and it became


          pretty obvious -- got tired by the end of the exams, even though you


          took time afterwards, I could tell by the marking of the red on the


          sheets when you went up to my office.  All of a sudden you started out


          great and then trickled down to a poor essay.  All that hurt.  That


          means that you need better conditioning.  You should start a


          conditioning routine, a few push ups and run a few miles and then


          maybe you would last longer.  It was a factor in a good five to 10


          exams where people simply petered out is the term.  Let's look at them


          more specifically.


               Explain why you would prefer to live and die in ancient Egypt.


          Now, contradict yourself and explain why you would prefer to live and


          die in Mesopotamia.  It's interesting even on the other question most


          people choose Egypt.  Actually, I would have preferred to live and die


          in Mesopotamia.  Now, that's unusual, maybe one person would have said



          that that was their first choice.


          Q    Because you fear the Gods?


               THE PROFESSOR:  Because I fear the Gods?  I fear no one but my


          own God, that's myself.


          A    I think you're a glutton for punishment.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Masochistic.


          A    Yeah.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I don't know, maybe your right.  The fearing the


          Gods, I would have to deal with.  Give me a good reason.  Why do you


          think I would prefer to live and die in Mesopotamia, a serious one?  I


          don't think you were serious.


          A    Because when power was exchanged among civilization, when you


          were a serve or a serf class there was no upward or downward movement


          and when your leaders changed you don't have to go and die with them.


               THE PROFESSOR:  No.


          A    I was going to say you might want to prefer Mesopotamia because


          they don't -- I think they don't believe in the afterlife as far as


          like Egypt is concerned.


               THE PROFESSOR:  So why would I want to be in a place where I'm


          not concerned about an afterlife.


          A    Because they don't have to stress out about the their day to day




               THE PROFESSOR:  I think you're on the right track.  I'm not sure


          I would express it in that fashion, but that's okay.


               One, I like diversity.  And Egypt did not have diversity.  It was



          basically a same people with a few Nubian slaves brought in.  I didn't


          realize how much I liked diversity until I taught at a university in


          the south for two and a half years.  When my oldest son was born in a


          hospital down there and everybody else had blond hair and blue eyes in


          the hospital because they didn't really allow African-Americans in, I


          think, and yet there's an African-American underdog community in the


          south in those years and of course that's many years fact.  The fact


          is that he had dark eyes and fairly dark skin.  He took after his


          mother and he stood out.  And then when I watched TV and saw nothing


          but whites on TV on the news and elsewhere, when I got to the Bay Area


          and saw the diversity, I realized how much I appreciated diversity


          having grown up in New York.  I don't like bland communities.


               Why else?  We said that as you expressed it, the sense of


          materialism, the sense of everyday life, and I'm doing this because


          again it was really lacking as to why people might have chosen it.  A


          few of you mentioned the materialism, but didn't explain it in its


          full sense.  The searching, the working, the drive or making your life


          better today, not looking for the pie in the sky, but leave that you


          can achieve mobility and work for this life is a major factor.  I


          believe that creativity comes from striving.  I believe in


          competition.  And I think all of that was open to more human


          development in Mesopotamia.  Granted, none of us would like the wars,


          the expansion, the different changes, but I could move from city to


          city and change cultures.  I would obtain a greater sense of wealth.


               Now negatives, sure but we didn't need to deal with the



          negatives.  As far as dying is concerned?  In Mesopotamia there wasn't


          a sense of an afterlife, and therefore dieing in Mesopotamia was


          irrelevant if I had a good life.  Now, in Egypt, obviously most people


          chose Egypt for a large number of factors.  Although, I must say that


          one person I liked, identified that in ancient Egypt women had a


          greater sense of equality with the men and therefore women would


          achieve, could earn wealth, could own businesses at times and did.


          And even in Egypt you did have a few pharaohs that were female.


          Obviously they had to put on the false beard and act like they were


          men, but that's secondary to the fact that there was at least a near


          sense of equality.


               The other element in Egypt that didn't exist in Mesopotamia was


          the sense of feeling and interaction with men and women.  You could


          see it in the sculptures where they're holding hands and they're equal


          side by side.  So that sense of spirit might have been something more


          specific that you could have introduced.  I did get a kick out of the


          person who said he would prefer to live in Mesopotamia because women


          had their own air.  I thought that was a good choice.  I did identify


          to him or her on the paper that at least maybe forgetting a fact that


          in Egypt women's clothes could be seen through.  That was yours Peter?


          Yeah.  I figured the wise ass would do that.  Yet again, there is that


          you could have made an argument for whatever reason they didn't have


          to buy a lot of different clothes because the men only wore loin


          cloths and although they changed in height from time to time, it


          didn't mean that you had to have a big wardrobe and that saved money.



          It's not so much you're right or wrong answer, it's you're showing me


          that you learned something from the class itself.  And sometimes it


          can be minuscule like that and other times it can it can wealth of the


          society.  You could identify the jewelry, the sculpture and gold, the


          silver, the work programs, the food, and many of those kinds of


          elements.  And of course I would have expected in Egypt for you to


          have developed the mummification, the afterlife, the search for an


          afterlife, the continuation and the differences perhaps in different


          periods of time.


               I also would have liked for a good essay paper to a perfect one,


          not just the date, but some mention of the Gods, who the Gods were,


          what they were like, et cetera.  Just introduced the fact that you


          picked up on some of that.  Somebody mentioned the two souls in Egypt.


          You could have thrown in a little more detail like the ba and the ka


          just to show me that you've got that extra little stuff to get an.


               Any more questions on that?


               C -- did ...?


               Again, reemphasized four things of the Greeks that I would have


          loved to have seen in the essay:  The belief in the fates of the God;


          the concept of the polis, the city state; the belief in hubris,


          excessive pride and the punishment, and the concept of perfection.


          That was fifth one that underlined all of that should have been


          introduced as well, and that was belief in individuality and


          tremendous respect for humankind.  The Greek Gods were human in a


          sense with all the problems foibles, conflicts, et cetera, that humans



          have.  Again, perhaps that's why you were not to live up to those Gods


          as ideals, as images to follow.  And taking those especially the sense


          of individuality or polis, you needed to build on some of the elements


          of respect for individuality or the individual city states.  And you


          could have done that by the rocky elements of Egypt grows, the


          mountains that divided the communities and broke down the ability to


          unify because it became difficult moving from place to place or


          conquering other areas.  You could have dealt with the trade and the


          other contacts with other people to express the wealth of Athens and


          the development of the expansion of the olive oil but with that and


          the middle class and the high numbers of people who had wealth, the


          respect for individual actuality and the respect for achievement and


          perhaps the respect for perfection.  You could have dealt with the


          Mediterranean climate, the climates that fairly warm most of the year,


          similar to California, right here.  We've got fairly nice weather all


          year-round.  It creates a better sense of warmth and happiness and


          movement and individuality.  People express themselves more as


          individuals.  New Yorkers cover themselves up.  They hide what they


          really are.  Californians are in many ways more balanced shall we say.


          They don't have four personalities because of the four seasons --


          cold, hot, rainy, dripping, snow.


               And with the individuality you could have explained the


          development of the institution, certainly of democracy, certainly of


          the different forms of government.  You should have developed that


          with Sparta and the farming community and the conservatism that comes



          out of the farming community.  And they're lack of contact with


          outside communities, races, peoples, where the Athenians, as seafaring


          peoples, understood and dealt with diversity even if they saw


          foreigners as barbarians.


               B.  I think I expressed some of the problems there are, but I


          think this major one that I found was there was a lot there to write.


          This should have taken a good bit of time considering you spent time


          on it.  The major problem was in dealing with the environmental


          factors.  The does talk about the challenges of the environment that


          help today develop political, social, cultural patterns and


          technologies.  And if you recall, I said it was benefit you


          dramatically if you define civilization and title those issues to the


          concept of civilization as well.  It was sort of my hint to the


          classes.  And many of you did not define civilization or develop it


          for that matter as part of that essay question.


               Any questions on the exams?  On the next exam?  Don't I get my


          usual question?  Is it comprehensive?  And my answer -- yes; all my


          exams are comprehensive.  The question is -- is it cumulative?  And


          the answer is -- it is not cumulative.  Translation, the exams are


          self-contained, although material from previous can be provided in the


          next exam, not required.  And therefore what we're going to start with


          today which basically is moving on to Rome and the Roman empire is


          going to be that through the early middle ages will be the main trust


          of exam two.


          Q    Is exam two going to be harder?



               THE PROFESSOR:  I don't make them harder or easier.  It's going


          to be identical I hope in its approach with different questions.  Now,


          you know at least what to expect and I think that's useful and helpful


          in producing and writing papers.


          Q    Can you produce another take home question?


               THE PROFESSOR:  Yeah.  I decided to go back to it and so I will.


          A lot of this workbook is the world civilization.  And time limits how


          much we can do in class, so I give you the opportunity of learning it


          if you're interested.  If you take the take home.


          A    Uh-hum.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Okay.  Where to begin.


               Let's between with my title for the subject.


                                      Two Faced God:


               I am not one of those grand admirers of Rome.  Historically there


          have probably been more books written on Rome and Roman history than


          any other period in history, I think.  And I can understand that.  And


          we can talk about it.  And Rome continues with us.  There were many


          elements of it that I personally have problems with.  And that to a


          large extent is I think underlined by my title, the two faced God.


          Anybody here know what the two faced God was besides Kirshner?


          A    Janus.


               THE PROFESSOR:  And why is January taken from Janus?


          A    It's the beginning of the year.


               THE PROFESSOR:  And the year.  You're looking back to the


          previous year and looking ahead to the future year.  And so the two



          faced God does reflect it.  In Egypt he -- yeah, right.  In Rome the


          two faced God reflected peace and war.  Janus had two faces.  One


          smiling and one grimacing.  One for war and one for peace.  I just


          realized I wore a peace symbol today.


          Q    How did you spell Janus?


               THE PROFESSOR:  J-A-N-U-S.


               The temple of Janus had its doors open during time of war and


          it's doors closed during time of peace, which never made any sense to


          me either.  You would think the doors should be closed during time of


          war.  But we also use the term two faced to refer to people who are


          two faced, say something and mean something else, speak with forked


          tongue, the serpent.  My feeling is that the Roman history generally


          reflects people who talked peace and were war like.  And even during


          the period of the so called P-A-X Pax Romana.  Perhaps I saw it more


          in my studies as study of P-O-X like smallpox.  So the culture of


          Rome.  The concept on Rome, the macho approach to life and death of


          the Romans limits my wimpy liking of them.  But I understand where


          it's coming from.  It's coming from a thousand years of existence.


          Roam lasted 1,000 years.  I always get a kick out of those who talked


          about the evil and decline of Rome and all of a sudden civilization


          went downhill and the United States is like Rome because we've got the


          same problems today which shows our immorality and we need a Messiah


          to rescue us from the evils of our nation.  We've been around 200, 300


          years, depending on how look at it and we can find the same problems


          in Rome for 500, 600 years.  Sure it took them a hell of a long time



          to recline.  I have to admit that.  When is a civilization rising and


          declining.  We'll look at some of that in your study of Rome.


               Let me go back to sort of the foundation of Roman history.  As


          most of you remember, I spoke of Aeneas who was a Trojan who left Troy


          supposedly around 1200 with the fall of Troy.  And wound up at a city


          called Carthage.  Apparently there has been some discovery and


          development along the lines of finding Odysseus' original city which


          is Ithaca and there's been debate as to where Ithaca was.  They now


          feel that there was an islands that now a peninsula because it's


          filled in and it makes more sense finding the description from Homer's


          work the Odyssey.  As I indicated, Schliemann had -- and she mention


          Schliemann in the article -- had basically used the Iliad to find both


          Troy and Mycenae to identify that the description of Homer of those


          areas were fairly accurate and that has raised questions about why


          Ithaca wasn't where it was because the island that they had identified


          as where they thought Ithaca was didn't fit much of the description of


          the flatness and of course its location which is off the coast of


          where that peninsula is in southern Peloponnesia and Greece.


               Let's get back.  In any case, from the City of Troy, traveled


          through to Carthage where as I pointed out the story of Rome is


          spelled out in a major propaganda work by the poet Vergil in the


          Aeneid.  Do you know what other great work of literature Vergil




          A    Dante.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Going through purgatory, Vergil becomes the guide



          through the inferno in Dante.  It is a propaganda work to proceed the


          founding of Rome and to explain the wars with Carthage.  As you


          recall, Aeneas decided to reject Dido and not be encumbered by any


          female so that he could found the glory and greatness of an empire.


          And he sees when he goes down to hades in the Italian peninsula the


          founding of his great city and the Roman legions and the great future.


          The period of course somehow doesn't seem to jive because Carthage is


          founded in the 9th century in the 800 BCE which again makes me wonder


          about Velikovsky's dating of history.  Make this dark ages of Greece


          made more sense if it wasn't there.  And maybe the reason Homer was as


          accurate in his writing about geographical locations what is the -- he


          had lived within a short period of time from the Trojan war, that


          there hadn't been a 600 year difference at that time, but we can't


          validate any of that at this point.


               In any case, the City of Rome is founded around 753 BCE by two


          brothers played in the movies by Steve Reeves and Gordon School.  I


          only mention that because I mentioned Steve Reeves the other day.


          That is Romulus and Remus, two young boys who were placed in a raft


          when they were babies, the two brothers, twins.  Like Cain and Able.


          It's interesting the conflict stories in twin that is appear in other


          areas of history.  It's also interesting how often great heroes not


          only reject women but somehow or other as babies are orphaned and are


          placed in reed baskets and adopted by others and they float down


          rivers, and this occurs in cultures throughout the world including of


          course with Moses floating down the Nile River and being raised by



          perhaps the royal family or people within the royal family.


               Romulus and Remus are raised by a she wolf, although the name


          Lydia or similar to that Lee da is the name for a she wolf and it may


          have been a woman with that name.  But the legend goes that the she


          wolf has seven tits not 8.  You see that's another question about


          history.  How come everything is balanced?  We don't have animals with


          seven tits.  They have to have 8 or 6 or 2, whatever the animal is.


          And based on that, the difference is that it's reflective supposedly


          of the seven hills that is going to create the City of Rome or


          hills around the City of Rome.


               They grow up as great warriors and have a series of a number of


          young men who join them as quote/unquote retainers.  They follow them.


          Usually again another one of those patterns in history.  Great leaders


          have 12 followers.  That's why I said there were going to be 12


          planets because how could the sun not have 12 planets around it and


          therefore develop its greatness?  I'll probably be gone when they're


          found, but some of you may be alive and just remember that somebody


          told you there were going to be 12 planets.


               As they begin their power, they decide that they want to conquer


          this wealthy area around the Tigris River and this city here, one of


          the hills.  They move in and they take over the city or at least the


          particular hill and at that point, a conflict breaking out between


          Romulus and Remus over the naming of the city.  They couldn't put it


          together.  The jealousies over how this great city was going to be


          named.  And Romulus kills Remus and names the city after himself --



          Rome.  Now, we have a problem.  We have a city but you can't have the


          city or a community founded without women.  I mean you can have a city


          called Amazons, but men need to have women to reproduce as we said.


          There are no women.  Where are you going the get the women?  Well, one


          of the other patterns in pornography besides snake the issue of rape.


          Real men don't need women.  Real men rape women.  And the founding of


          Rome is built on pornography, again, identifying my negativity toward


          Rome.  On a nearby hill is a community of loving people with loving


          wives and loving daughters called the Sabines.  And Romulus and his


          retainers go forth and steal the women from the Sabines.  And


          following mythology, the men from the Sabines come to demand their


          women back.  And since these are real men, the Romans, the women


          decide they want to stay with their rapists, ha, ha, ha.  But that's


          the way pornography tends to create mythology.  And so now the Sabine


          women are now tied to the Roman men.  And that's the way the City of


          Rome was founded.