History 104A, November 9: The Crusades—Then & Now!


               Well, we do have a group meeting today.


          A    Actually, it was on Monday but we missed it.


          A    I agree with her.


          A    I second that motion.


               THE PROFESSOR:  What, get rid of it?


          A    Yeah.


          Q    Can we do it for extra credit?  There's nobody here.


               THE PROFESSOR:  That's the best time to have it because they all


          lose all their points for not writing the paper.  I'm a teacher.


          We're nasty.


          A    But you're not like that.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Yes, I am.


               In any case, today is our crusading day.  I've always had an


          interest in the crusades, but in many ways, today we're living through


          crusades.  And some of it is really very very similar in the sense


          that -- first of all, there's a new movie out on TV called Crusades.


          Kingdom of Heaven, did anybody see in?


          A    I can bring it in.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Any good?


          A    Yeah, it is.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Yeah.  We haven't got time to watch it.


          A    Yeah, we do.  We can watch it today.


          A    She has it in her backpack right now.


               THE PROFESSOR:  And perhaps a good reason for it.  The fact is



          that in a sense since 1948 the West, being western Europe, has once


          again created crusading states, this time perhaps not under


          Christianity but under Judaism in Israel when Israel was created by


          the establishment of this western outpost being Jewish or be it


          Christian.  The Muslim world saw there as an extension of an era that


          they didn't put much attention on until recently.


          A    How come they don't like the holy land just like an international




               THE PROFESSOR:  Well, that was talk about creating an


          international zone just Jerusalem which is holy to three religions,


          Muslim, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian.  Certainly with the Jews and the


          Muslims, they are not really to compromise.  And like many religions,


          they're not willing to share.


          A    But I mean, they could just put a fence around it and charge


          admissions like Disneyland and do strip searches.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I don't think that's a good analogy for Jews,


          Christians or Muslims.  I laugh because I thought it was funny, make


          it a Disneyland where you charge admission to go.


          A    Not necessarily charge admission, but make it so that everyone


          going in is searched.  Make it so that you can only bring in a certain


          amount of things and you can only stay for a certain amount of time.


          Regulate it, but they all get their own peace, they stay away from


          each other.


               THE PROFESSOR:  And nobody is saying that there's anything wrong


          particularly with the idea, by only thing is, the practicality of it



          has been limited by the faiths themselves who are, at this point, very


          very demanding and certainly that --


          A    Or just give them the ultimatum this we can just nuke it and then


          there won't be anything nor everybody.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I think we would have trouble nuking it.


               In any case, in the 11th century, 1000s, if you will, the Muslim


          world was expanding as you can see into these areas.  And today


          another analogy we see, a Muslim world expanding perhaps on a


          different level; but countries like Germany, France, many of western


          European countries have quote/unquote imported Muslim laborers, in


          Germany and in north Europe up through Denmark, large numbers of


          Turks.  In France, of course we have large numbers of Algerians and


          Libyans and even some Moroccans who have moved into those countries as


          part of the working class to the extent that these nations who have


          been traditionally very much isolated -- we know the Germanic sense of


          the racism that existed there under Hitler.  The French, certainly


          anybody who deals with them well knows that they won't even speak


          French to you even if you speak it fluently if you don't have a


          Persian accent.  Each nation has its extreme nationalism and under


          those particular indications it isn't too surprising that in France


          today, for the last 12 days, there has been violence by the young


          Muslim population along with a certain percentage of Africans from


          Africa.  The difference being that this Muslim expansion is dealing


          with a working class.  And so we are seeing the development in the


          Christian quote/unquote world of another fear of a Muslim take over.



          Now, valid or not is not an issue.


               Spain had been taken over by the Muslim starting in 711 when they


          crossed into it.  By the 12th century -- by the 11th century there was


          a great Spanish leader whose often identified with nationalism in


          Spain but he changed his alliance and worked very strong by with the


          Moors the Muslims in Spain.  And of course there are many songs done


          around him, and his name as he had Cid C-I-D.  And as I say, often


          identified as a nationalistic leader far before nationalism expanded.


               In a sense, the first crusades took place in Spain.  In the


          middle of the 11th century, the Pope gave to Spanish Christians


          remission of sin if they died in warfare against the Muslim


          population.  Of course they didn't get the 72 virgins that's alleged


          to be promised by the Koran for those that die against the infidel in


          warfare.  Remission of sin means, translated to, you go ahead to


          heaven without passing go and without collecting the $200.  The Pope


          said any sins that you engaged in would be forgiven by Christ because


          you died for Christ.


               The basis for the crusading spirit was remission of sin.  And


          when Peter, often known as Peter the Hermit, returned from Jerusalem


          in the area 1095, about 50 years after remission of sin was granted to


          Spaniards of Christian origin we preached of the freeing of the holy


          land of returning Jerusalem to Christianity as a holy city where


          Christians went on pilgrimages.  And because of the expansion of the


          Muslims at the time of -- into this idea into the caliphate of Cairo


          and before the Ottomans came in, there had been greater difficult for



          Christians to get there.  There was also higher taxes that the Muslims


          were demanding of these Christians moving in.  And with the expanding


          of Europe, there were more people who were willing to take the journey


          to the holy land in a sense of doing good works and good deeds, if you


          will.  People of Europe rallied to Peter as a salesman.  And the Pope


          declared the first crusade.  He offered any Christians who went out to


          fight the infidel, the Muslims, salivation.  And throughout Europe,


          large numbers of unemployed poorer Christians set forth with a few


          nobles.  Most of the nobles who went on the first crusade were the


          second, third, fourth brothers of the individual who was going to


          inherit all the land of their noble father.  Most of Europe had a


          system called primogeniture.  Primogeniture was the system where the


          eldest son inherited the land without breaking it up among the


          children.  And that left the younger sons with income to do except


          perhaps fight.  Now, many of them did go into the clergy.  And because


          of their noble background, because of their wealth, if you will,


          whatever that means, they often bought high posts as bishops or


          cardinals in the church, but others were left to depend on their own


          they became fighting men.  If you have nothing to fight directly, you


          head out to the holy with the crusade.  And basically the first


          crusade went by land and some by sea but mostly by land.


               And of course what began to happen in its travels by land here,


          into this area, here, into the area -- (see map) -- is that they


          encountered Muslims and Jews.  And so why worry about getting over


          here to fight the infidel when you go through here and you see



          infidels like Jews and Muslims living in eastern Europe.  They


          eliminated cities partially because of religious purposes but perhaps


          because of a more practical one.  When you've got a mass of people


          maybe as many as 100,000 in groups of 10,000 marching across Europe,


          there's something known as foods that necessary.  And where do you get


          it?  There are no supply lines to bring it from Europe.  And so they


          simply took it.  As these masses of armies moved, people took to the


          hills knowing that they would be eliminated.  Many of the people in


          eastern Europe had some wealth.  That sense that they were fighting


          for Christ also meant that we deserved the rewards on this Earth; and


          therefore, they're owed to us, so why not take that wealth not just


          from Jews and Muslims but from Christians who do not support us in our


          crusade against the Muslims.  To say to say the least, a very violent


          movement to the east with some minimal success.  In this area here --


          (see map), we began to see the establishment from the first crusade a


          number of crusading cities along the coast.  And finally they did


          succeed in this first crusade from 1096 to 1099, they did succeed in


          capturing Jerusalem.  And Jerusalem, once again, I guess you would say


          became a Christian city.  So all of this area along the coast here


          became part of the crusading success.  And into this area here -- (see


          map) -- Christian establishments were created.  However, we found that


          the Muslims began to organize and recapture some of this area.  And so


          at around 1104, another large group of crusaders left to try and


          reinforce the crusading states.


               Perhaps one of the biggest and best known crusades though was



          what we called the second crusade.  What had happened by the 1150s is


          that much of this territory had been recaptured by the Muslims.  And


          in the second crusade, some of the most famous kings of Europe set


          forth with their knights to liberate the holy land.  They included


          Henry of England and Louis of France.  And I talked earlier of Eleanor


          of Aquatain who switched from Louis of France to Henry of England.


          And that crusade had again achieved some success.  However, a leader


          emerged among the Muslims, a man whose name I think you've heard,


          certainly appeared in kingdom of heaven.  Saladin is the English


          variation of his name.  And he began do liberate much of the holy land


          and actually was able to even recapture Jerusalem.


               A third crusade went forth in the 1180s, another crusade with


          some very famous individuals.  We had King Richard from England of


          Robin Hood fame going off leaving Robin Hood to fight and protect


          England against King John.  John was a snake in the movie?


          A    A lion.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I thought Richard was the lion.  Was it Maid


          Marian that was a fox?  Just check your memories because mine is not


          so good anymore.  You have to keep up on your reviews.


               And once again, a certain understanding came forth, the power of


          the Christians at least solidified some of the land that they had and


          people returned, except for Frederick Barbarossa who was, as I told you,


          probably drowned because of the armor when he fell off his horse into


          a puddle.

In 1189, Barbarossa left on the third Crusade to conquer Jerusalem. While on the Crusade Barbarossa died of drowning in 1190. He failed to achieve his dream of a Central European Empire. Nevertheless he left behind a legacy of a strong ruler who was able to create peace.


                       But once again the Muslims re-- not their forces back


          together and began to seem to recapture much of the aread that been



          captured by the Christians.


               A fourth crusade went forth at around 1202/1203.  They never got


          there.  They stopped off at Constantinople.  That is a nice rich city


          that's controlled by heretics.  They're talking about the eastern


          Christianity, the eastern orthodox.  And so the western Christians,


          what we called to Catholics, took over Constantinople removing the


          king from the throne.  The Byzantium emperor was removed as a Greek


          orthodox Christian and a Roman Christian was placed on the throne and


          so for the short period of time, this area was once again reunited


          with the Pope in Rome.  However, 25 years later the Greek orthodox


          restored the Byzantium empire and the Greek orthodox patriarch, if you


          will, and restored a Greek orthodox emperor to Byzantium.


               Word spread through Europe that the reason the crusades had


          failed was that this crusaders went for selfish motives -- land,


          wealth.  And so the word spread by some that the only way the holy


          land would be liberated from the infidel was through young people who


          were pure.  They had no selfish motives.  14-year-olds, 15-year-olds


          were trustworthy, clean, referent, et cetera.  We enter an era that's


          an interesting one.  It's called the children's crusade.


               Throughout Europe young people are recruited from Germany,


          France, Europe to go fight with pitchfork basically the infidel with


          the belief that when they got down to the Mediterranean Sea, the sea


          would dry up and they would be able, much like Moses did with the Red


          Sea, they would be able to walk across to the holy land.  Now again, I


          doubt if they had any idea how long this was or the fact that there's



          no food -- well, I guess they would have some dead fish to eat on the


          way.  The Germans in their nice style, kicked the kids back home.  By


          the way, it is argued by many that the story of the pied piper who


          supposedly convinced the parents to let the kids follow him and then


          he disappeared with all the children, of course the main story you


          hear is about how he cleared the city of the mice and he was to get,


          once he cleared the city of the mice, these kids.  The pied piper


          supposedly comes from this children's crusade.  The German kicked them


          back.  The French aren't always so great, and they let them go to the


          Mediterranean.  The Mediterranean, surprise, surprise, did not dry up.


          And so they said, how are we going to get in?  Well, there were these


          nice Italian shippers, they came into the port of Nice.  We'll take


          it.  That was the last that was heard of those nice young Christian


          kids for 10 or more years.  What had happened was that these kids were


          actually sold into slavery by the Italians -- never trust the


          Italians -- to the Muslims, especially to the Mamelukes here in Cairo,


          here in Egypt, who had a system where they castrated all of their


          bureaucrats.  I'm not sure if that's a bad system.  I'd love to see


          Libby or Rove castrated.  The reason?  It would stop nepotism.  They


          couldn't give any of their kids to government jobs and they would be


          pure in ruling.  And so these kids were castrated and became part of


          the bureaucrats of the Muslim caliphate in Egypt.  Some actually were


          used in the choruses as tenors, but a few of them began to wander back


          in Europe about 10 years later.  And the story of what had happened


          gave some -- well, let's us know what happened is better said.



               The crusades continued perhaps off and on in different ways for


          another couple of hundred years.  They were minor.  The king of


          Portugal, at around 1480, took a group of crusaders into Morocco


          through Libya supposedly and freed Tunisia.  He disappeared.  His name


          was Sebastian.  We're talking 15th century.  They found in the late


          1800s in Brazil a group of former Portuguese descendants who


          worshipped Sebastian as the second coming of Christ.  Many felt that


          this was a messiah coming back.  And so that sense of the crusades --


          it's even said that that crusading spirit was part of what came forth


          with Cortez and Pizarro in their conquest of the western hemisphere,


          Pizarro in the Incas and of course Cortes with the Aztecs.  They had


          that same sense of crusades and purity and Christianity.  The reports


          are from the writers of the Spanish conquest, Bernal Diaz, that Cortez


          not so upset at the Aztec guards that at the pyramid of Cholula, he


          ran up the pyramids -- it's hard enough to walk up -- and began


          tossing the images of their Gods down on the Indian population, the


          Native Americans there.


               Crusades had a tremendous impact in Europe and we'll talk more


          about them after the exam.  They changed in a sense the movement of


          Europe because it brought back to Europe luxury goods from the East


          that people began to want.  It was a holy war in itself against what


          they saw as a religious enemy.  And of course it was to free the holy


          land for the pilgrimages.  It was a means of the Pope asserting his


          leadership.  He had a reason to control Europe because he was going to


          free the world of non-Christians.  And then of course there were the



          economic prizes and the conquest of land as well.  We will go into


          this a bit further and develop it.  The main thing to note is it's


          going to sort of be a transition in the long run into modern Europe


          that we're going to pick up after the midterm No. 2 or at least exam




               Before we go into the groups, do you have any questions about the


          exam on Monday?  None?  Are we sure?  Okay.  Then let me get your


          little forms out and you can head into your groups.  Please remember


          that the question is on education in Europe and it deals with


          education of all classes, so that's what you're going to be talking


          about, some of it coming from the lecture and hopefully others from


          the reading.  You certainly can go outside.  For those that are not


          ready, you can write it up.