History 104A, December 5: Like It or Not, We are All Protestant! PART II


               Once again the clock ticks down and I can soon say another


          semester, another group of students gone bye-bye.  In case I forget to


          mention it, I'll see some of you in about 20 years and you'll be fat


          and bald and that's just on the women.


          Q    Are you talking about the girls?


               THE PROFESSOR:  In 20 years I'm fat and bald already.


          A    I thought you were like 300 years old.  You're not even going to


          be alive in 20 years.


               THE PROFESSOR:  What do you mean?  If I were a nice guy, I would


          say F you; but I can't do things like that since I'm a professor.


          Thanks loads.  Why can't I be alive at 320?  I made it to 300.  That's


          why I like her.  She hassles me.


          Q    Is that in the notes again?


               THE PROFESSOR:  Well, the nice part is, if they fire me, I've got


          my retirement so it's no problem.  If they read my notes which I


          post -- some day I'll edit and get that stuff out.


               In any case, the exam is Monday and at an hour that's unGodly for


          me, 9:30 to 11:30 in this room.  And yes, I did remember suddenly,


          even after a weekend of craziness with some kids -- chess tournament


          that I didn't run, but it was both days in Stockton.  This morning I


          looked at the book, found a picture, came up with a question, and here


          it is.  The question is for the take home -- describe the impact of


          western European expansion from 1450 to 1550 on the peoples they


          encountered.  Please spend as much time and space on the positive as



          well as the negative impact of these encounters.  It was a difficult


          one because I didn't put aside any special assignment, readings


          optional.  This will at least cover the two chapters.  That's all


          actually we really have for this exam.  The studying should be a bit


          easier.  And it will deal with at least part of the lectures as well


          today and Wednesday where we have the last group meeting on Wednesday,


          if I remember.  And the other news perhaps is that we have really


          become an important city here in Fremont Newark.  They are opening a


          second WalMart.


          A    No.  It's already opened.


               THE PROFESSOR:  No, no, a second one.  They're going to build it


          on the old Costco in Newark, so both Fremont and Newark will have a




          A    It's only like 10 minutes away from the new one.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Three miles.  They are absolutely convinced that


          we are such consumers in the community, and then it will be great


          because all us gray haired people can wear blue vests and greet you as


          you walk in the door, so it helps with the unemployment problem like


          they do in France, like we talked about the other day.


               Which leads us into my own way, the Protestant reformation and


          that whole sense of what we were talking about the impact of


          Protestantism on the culture of the United States, as I alluded to,


          ending up with that whole sense of an anal retentive personality and


          that tremendous influence the bathrooms have in our lives.  I didn't


          get into perhaps the Protestant work ethic on the level -- well, I'm



          not sure how much I do want to get into on it.  Certainly there is an


          element of Protestantism.  As I said, Wax Weber and his study


          indicated that Protestantism lead to capitalism because it lead to


          investment, not showing off the wealth, rather than -- this was an old


          term from the book years ago, conspicuous consumption, using your


          money to show off your wealth and therefore really not doing anything


          with it and therefore ending it and then you're at wealth in part.  If


          I forget to identify, this is to some extent what happened with Spain


          during the age of exploration.  They had all this gold and silver


          coming into a country known as bullion or species.  And with that gold


          and silver they felt powerful and wealthy for probably almost 100


          years, but they did nothing with it.  It was shown off in the luxury


          of the nation and of the ruling classes.  And when they needed


          products, manufactured quote/unquote, they purchased them from Holland


          or from England.  And so most of the wealth, most of the gold and


          silver if not almost all of it, went off to other places to be able to


          invest and produce, and Spain was left in poverty almost, once the


          gold and silver from the colonies expired or at least the British, the


          Dutch went in and took over certain areas where the Spanish could have


          gotten more gold and more silver.  So again, conspicuous consumption


          was something frowned upon.


               The Puritans, basically with their black and white outfits


          symbolize simplicity.  They symbolized hard work.  They symbolized


          morality.  They symbolized moderation, the Puritan ethic.  I think --


          did I mention that we get the feeling that there was no wine, women,



          and song allowed to the Puritan.  Yes, they were uptight, but there


          was moderation.  You were allowed one glass of wine a day.  You were


          allowed one cigarette a day or one pipe of tobacco.  And you were


          allowed one woman a day.  And that was the extent of -- that was it.


          Anything more than that was considered conspicuous consumption.  And


          that investment went into the production of society.  And we pointed


          out, a stitch in time saves nine.  Part of that work ethic that


          transpired to produce, to a large extent, the wealth and success


          candidly of the United States and of course in part has us exploiting


          other people for the sake of our wealth.  There's no doubt that that,


          of course, was part of the early process of early colonization.  We


          have a book written in about 1836 or so around the same time Harvard


          was produced that basically said that the Indians need to be hunted


          down -- we're talking about the indigenous people -- and eliminated


          with dogs, et cetera, because they do not work the God given land;


          they do not produce.  They simply live on it.  And since they were


          agents of the devil, they had to be purified.  The true agents and the


          first agents of the devil were the Jews, and while the Jews should be


          eliminated, says the Massachusetts Bay colony, there are no Jews here,


          so we must eliminate the indigenous people.  That sense of being


          trustworthy, loyal, helpful, worthy, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean,


          and reverent because it proved you're among the saved, you were not


          among the dammed led to perhaps one of the most famous authors in


          American history.  I don't know why this happens.  It just went out of


          the head.  I'm talking too fast.  In 1850s on he wrote many books



          dealing with -- 300 years that's my age.  That's what it does.


          Horatio Alger -- any of you heard of Horatio Alger?  They wrote over


          100 novels all about the basic same theme.  How, as Jews, he's lost in


          the dessert and he comes across some guy who gives him a quarter.  How


          many know who Howard Hughes was?  Yeah, you shouldn't take these


          classes because it makes you feel sort of weird.  Howard Hughes was


          known as one of the richest men in the world and very eccentric.  He


          lived in his later years as a hermit.  He was married to a number of


          Hollywood movie stars including one of the more famous sex symbols, a


          woman named Jane Russel, who I'm sure none of you have heard of, and


          was famous or using some of that money to produce the "spruce goose",


          this massive wooden airplane that was out in Long Beach for a long


          time that flew for about 40 feet and never flew again.  He was also a


          famous pilot and of course is a subject of what film?


          A    The Aviator.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Thank you.  So some of you have some familiarity


          with his background and eccentricity.  He always seemed to look like a


          bum in later years with long fingernails and disheveled.  The story


          goes -- I can't remember how many years back before he died -- because


          this guy helped him in whatever reason when he was stranded out there


          on the street, he left all his money to this guy in a will.  And that


          was challenged by, I think it was the Mormon church, because they


          tended to believe that money should have been going to them under the


          original will.  Does anybody remember any of that or am I maybe a


          little off on that, but I don't think so.



               The concept -- trustworthy, loyal, helpful, kind, obedient,


          thrifty, brave, and reverent -- the theme, if you help other people,


          if you're moral, if you're ethical, God is going to reward you at some


          point during this life as well as the next life because it identified


          that you are among the saints.  And people envied what became, at the


          end of the 19th century, known as the 400.  They were seen as very


          staunch, very strict, very moral individuals.  We're talking about


          people like Andrew Carnegie.  We're talking about Standard Oil and of


          course the Rockefeller family.  I talked about the halfway doctrine,


          that people were born in families of saints versus the families of


          sinners, and therefore, by the end of the 19th century as it was


          throughout much of the American history.  In church you not only sang


          songs to Christ, to God, you sang songs on behalf of work because you


          worked hard.  The working hard made some sense.  Because if you were


          uptight, you would not have these evil thoughts running through your


          mind such as sex.  You might have them, but you are too tired to


          engage in immorality because you worked 24 hours a day.  Well, with


          lack of sleep, and so it helped purify your mind, keeping you distant


          from people and keeping you away from sin.  And certainly those kinds


          of philosophies hung on in our society very heavily through to the




          Q    Is that why the seven dwarfs in Snow White whistled while they




               THE PROFESSOR:  I never thought about it.  It makes a lot of


          sense.  In the late 1960s we began to talk about the beginnings of a



          leisure ethic, that the American society would be going into leisure


          rather than heavy work because we didn't have enough work.  It may


          well have been an important element of it.  I didn't think about it.


          The night in shining armor comes through, but he's saving her because


          she's moral, ethical, good.  A lot of that comes out of northern


          Europe and the European society.  That's interesting.


               In any case, with the counter revolution of the 60s, the hippies,


          the yippees, part of their whole basis of looking unkept and acts of


          even what the Jesus freaks that came through, copying the hippy but


          not acting in a political sense because they were returning to the


          spirited community of the early Christianity who was in a sense a


          reaction to that quote/unquote uptight America with the anti-Puritan


          theme, let it all hang out.  We don't need to be kept in and bound by


          that American Puritan sense.  So yeah, there is a cultural impact that


          can come from a certain religious philosophy as it interjects itself


          into a society.  And as I say, it doesn't matter dramatically whether


          you're a Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Hindu, whatever you grow up in


          some extent in that society and you pick up on the values that have


          been transmitted for centuries in the history of the country.  And as


          I say, it has produced a productive economic system.  And yes, there


          are problems and there are problems with it, but that's, you know,


          that's what the future will hold is another story.  Yeah, I did want


          to at least emphasize that element of Puritanism that comes from the


          reformation and more directly from John Calvin and the sense of


          predestination, that you were born a saint or a sinner rather than



          perhaps the Lutheran free will or the Catholic salivation through the


          sacraments, doing good works and good deeds.  So let's return to "here


          I stand", 1521, where Luther stands firm and as we identify, we get


          the push in northern Europe for a Lutheran society and immediately we


          find a war breaking out between the defender of the faith, the holy


          Roman emperor, Charles the fifth, supporting the Pope against the


          heretic, Martin Luther himself, and it is what we refer to as the


          counter reformation.


               I should note that during this period, once you opened the door


          to reform and once reformists groups can survive, you're going to find


          even more left revolutionary action.  And so other groups come on the


          scenes who were even too radical for even Martin Luther.  Among those


          are the Ana Baptists who preach such things as divorce and free sex.


          Again, some things that simply are not acceptable.  And then there are


          the groups that go forth and begin to burn the Catholic churches and


          breaking into property and attack the princes.  And Luther actually


          tells the princes who have supported him -- and this is where in part


          he differs from Hus who, as I indicated, you saw in the video or DVD,


          lost the support of his prince because he went too far pulling out the


          tithing, the indulgences that the prince was getting from him.  Martin


          Luther sticks with the princes and tells the princes to hunt these


          princes who are rebelling in his name down with dogs, that they are


          not his people.  And so to aid the princes again, not just against


          Catholic, he begins perhaps a tradition in Germany tremendous amount


          of anti Semitic writing.  The Jews are blamed for the evils of the



          world and for the monopoly of wealth.  Again, they were the money


          lenders because they were the only ones under the Catholic church


          allowed to lend money.  And so we get that feeling to, in Shakespeare,


          of Shylock who demands the pound of flesh.  And while the Jews are not


          expelled directly from Germany, there is a closing down of the German


          society for the Jews that had entered there in 1492.


               Some of you are aware that when Ferdinand or Fernando and Isabel,


          king and queen of Spain united the two sections of Spain that were


          Christian, Castile and Argon, that controlled this part making a one


          nation in their marriage in 1469 and the beginning of the Spanish


          inquisition where everybody who was anti Catholic would be burned at


          the stake, any heretics would be destroyed because one way to unify a


          nation is to purify it in the sake of religion.  And princes have used


          religion to control nations for centuries if not even today.  The fact


          is that Spain, in 1492, destroyed the last Muslim stronghold in


          southern Spain at Granada.  Just as a sideline, I have a friend whose


          kids are in my chess team who sadly don't go to the school anymore


          because he put them into a Muslim school with the name Granada, so I


          guess there's still some memory to it amongst the Muslims as the last


          stronghold in Spain.  At that point, the Jews and the Muslims were


          expelled or given the option of conversion to Catholicism.  By the


          way, the Spanish inquisition could not try non-Catholics.  Jews and


          Muslims were not tried by the inquisition because they were not


          Catholics.  But those that had converted, what came known as the


          conversos, were put on trial if they were found to have been violating



          Catholic doctrine.  And among of course the Jews and Muslims who


          converted, many of them maintained their faith secretly.  One of the


          weird practices of converso Jews who maintained Judaism in Spain was a


          ritual circumcision.  Instead of circumcising the normal site for


          circumcision based on the covenant between Abraham and God, they began


          to circumcise their shoulders so they would not be -- I know -- make a


          cut.  It was a ritual circumcision so that they would maintain their


          Jewish practices in secret.  And many of them went off to other areas


          with the Spanish and began picking up on some of those in South


          America and Mexico some of their older traditions.


               In fact, just as a sideline taking us into the age of


          exploration, which of course is the same period of time basically


          we're talking about, it is in 1492 that Columbus sails the blue.  And


          part of the reason that he was able to set forth was because of the


          reconquest of Spain by Christians and expulsion of Jews and Muslims.


          He actually had been denied the money and support by Isabel and was


          leaving Spain -- he had already tried to Portugal and had gone England


          and had been denied his requests.  I'll talk at more about this later


          maybe.  And he was called back and told that he was able to raise


          funds now and he would receive the title of viceroy of the seas in the


          areas where he got.  He would be given control over those lands in


          return for the money being sent to Spain and the recognition and


          control by recognition of the queen and king of Spain.  Translation,


          Isabel did not sell her jewels to fund the expedition.  He gave him


          his blessing.  Most of which came from the pinzons which were from a



          very long line of converted Jews.  And many of the individuals that


          came aboard his ship, in fact the vast majority, were of converted


          Jewish families that were still living in Spain.  In fact, the


          individual who was given credit for finding land in the Bahamas,


          apparently or whatever it was but they think it may have been the


          Bahamas, first sighting it from the crows nest up on top of the mast,


          later went to South America where apparently he brought his family and


          continued or went back to practicing Judaism there.  So the question


          arose, why was Columbus so tied to the Jewish community including the


          queen's confessor, Torquemada?


          A    Torquemada.


               THE PROFESSOR:  How do you spell it; do you know?


          A    No.  It's in The History of the World though.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I'm guessing.  Torquemada was also from a long


          line of converted Jews.  When I say that we're talking 100 years, in


          1395 there had also been an influx of Jews and Muslims from Spain as


          in the northern part.  Most of the Jews at that point went to Germany


          and north Italy.  Some began a flux into the Muslims areas where we


          were actually welcome.  The Muslims, even after the creation of


          Palestine -- I'm sorry -- of Israel, had large communities of Jews who


          were openly practicing as long as they paid their tax.  There was not


          that anti-Semitism that began with the reestablishment of Israel and


          of course to Turkey as well, and some perhaps as far as Persia,


          although there was a very large Jewish community coming into Persia


          2,000 years ago at the time of Christ.  And many of the Persian Jews



          celebrate that period and that community is interesting because many


          of them are involved in selling Persian rugs.  What happened was that


          from 1395, many of them converted to Catholicism as well.  One of the


          largest communities of Jews besides Holland and Amsterdam existed in


          Genoa.  Columbus is from Genoa.  It was believed by a major Spanish


          historian that Columbus was of converted Jewish background, and that's


          why he took the phony name Christ the colonizer or Christopher Colon.


          And how does he identify it?  Columbus from Italy went off to Portugal


          and then to the Canary islands which was under Portuguese control,


          where he married a lived for a multiple of years, married to a


          daughter of a governor of the Canary islands.  And when Portugal


          turned him down, telling him that he knew this world was round and


          that he was off in miscalculations by 3,000 miles, the Portuguese not


          wanting to admit that they may have traveled into that area and


          certainly in the Cape Verde islands, bodies were floating up that were


          strange.  It could have different difference kinds of driftwood and


          people perhaps there was some contact and trade.  He went to Spain,


          England and then to Spain, where he began to try and convince, as I


          said, Isabel to aid and perhaps fund an expedition.  There he wrote


          many things.  And apparently, according to the historian, the Spanish


          historian whose name slips my mind right now, he made mistakes in his


          writings that were in Italian, the writings in Portuguese, yet there


          were few mistakes in his Spanish.  His writings in Spanish apparently


          were as accurate grammatically as the native speaker.  And the feeling


          is that he spoke Spanish better than he did Italian and better than he



          did Portuguese because his parents and grandparents had continued to


          use the Spanish from their native Spain after being expelled in 1395


          as their native language.  Now anybody would want to claim as Spain


          was trying to do, that Columbus was originally Spanish, why they would


          want to claim this individual who cited the prime directive by


          interfering with in the cultures, who knows.  The Italians love to


          claim him.  The Spanish love the claim him as their own.


               Back to in a sense and then we'll pick up there.  As I say, these


          all tie together, the counter revolution.  Basically what occurred now


          was a greater consolidation of the Catholic faith now that it was


          seriously be challenged a number of new orders religious orders


          appeared amongst perhaps the most powerful.  And most famous of these


          orders that I think you know the name of most of them were the


          Jesuits.  The Jesuits were an order designed to bring people not only


          back to the church, but organized as if it were a military force, as a


          group similar to the knights templar in a crusade, to bring people to


          the Catholic church.  They became and to the Pope as an order to bring


          people directly back to the respect for the Pope.  The Jesuits began


          the movement the preaching the action, not just in Spain and Portugal


          and in Italy, but in other parts of the world.  And perhaps one of the


          more influenced areas that they were in was in Japan.  They began an


          organization for education.  And as many of you know, some of the top


          universities in the United States are Jesuit based upon their concern


          for education.  I believe Santa Clara is, the University of San


          Francisco is part of that Jesuit faction.  They started out,



          interestingly, right wing going back to the Pope.  Today the Jesuits


          are more considered reformists and left wing and are often in conflict


          with the more ultra conservative Catholic followers.


          A    Because I'm a Catholic, originally the church we go to is St.


          Claires and it's Jesuit.  And they're considered more the odd group of




               THE PROFESSOR:  The odd group?


          A    Yeah.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I guess that's one way of putting it.


          A    The ones I knew were actually quite funny to be around.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Well, they're intellectuals.  They have to be




          A    They're quite smart.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Well, they're well trained and definitely




               The Jesuits become a very financial solid to the extent that they


          became hated by those, the things of the Catholic nations because they


          began to take control of the wealth.  And they were very much involved


          in colonization of the Americas as well.  In 1755, many years later,


          an earthquake broke out in Portugal.  The Jesuits blamed it on


          people's anti-Catholic anti-Pope stance, blamed it on their


          immorality, and the prime minister of Portugal.  The aid to the king,


          a man named Pombal banned the Jesuits from South America and in


          Portugal, condemned them in 1757.  However, the reason underlying it


          was that the Jesuits along the Portuguese control of the Amazon had



          taken control of all basically what are we calling plantations that


          were in the area.  And his brother was trying to get in there


          financially and could not because of Jesuit control.  The Jesuits had


          what we know as the seven missions in Paraguay and Uruguay and those


          areas where they really took control of the indigenous people, and


          some say used them as slaves.  And they said, no, they were just


          working in the eyes of God.  And with that there was an attempt to get


          rid of the Jesuits from those areas.  So that the Jesuits were soon to


          be banned and outlawed in both Portugal, Spain, Italy and other


          countries.  They later came back, and of course restore their strength


          as an order, but that's a little sideline to perhaps the history of


          the Jesuits.


               In any case, the counter reformation broke out, battles between


          Catholics and Protestants.  And in 1545 the Pope called together a


          council to deal with the threat of the heretics.  It was called the


          council of Trent.  And that council actually met to deal with some of


          these issues until 1563.  And there they went forth to try and


          reconcile, bring together Catholics and Protestants.  It failed.  And


          of course part of the reason for the failure was that real politics


          that meant power to the individual princes in Germany and elsewhere


          and in northern Europe.  But what might be called reform was


          undertaken.  Once again, the church outlawed nepotism and simony.


          God, I don't know how much time it is church, outlawed it from the


          19th century onward.  Nepotism means bringing your own family into the


          church, giving them the bishops, making them bishops or cardinals.



          Simony was a practice of buying church offices; by giving money to the


          church, you came a priest or a bishop and you were given territory.


          And of course these were one of the elements of the church that was


          condemned by Luther and others.  The attempts were made to include


          clerical immorality including not sanctioned marriages between clergy


          certainly, clergy who had mistresses, I guess, that's the term we


          would use.


               There's an interesting little paragraph in the conquest of Mexico


          written by Bernal Diaz who was there with Cortes about how one day the


          priests were attempting to get the Indians would give up their


          multiple wives.  And one of the Indians said to one of the priests,


          Why do we have to give up our wives; what about your wives?  You've


          got three of them.  And the priest apparently said they're not my


          wives.  The these are my housekeepers.  And then the Indian looked at


          them according to Bernal Diaz, how come they bury your children?  So


          that sense of immorality that some saw within the church brought about


          these demands and the prosecution of immorality again, we're going


          through some so much that right now.  It is not church doctrine, but


          we have seen a different sense of immorality among priests small


          numbers perhaps compared to the number of priests but certainly enough


          jokes for Jay Leno and David Letterman dealing with pedophilic priests


          with young boys or young girls, and of course large numbers of


          lawsuits and financial settlements in the last few years as well.


               The church with the help of the Jesuits encouraged from this


          counsel of Trent education, education in Catholicism.  And I they



          created officially a papal inquisition as part of this reform


          movement.  As an arm of the counter reformation, not just in Spain


          where it was to be developed later, but here -- I mean earlier -- but


          here in the church directly to get rid of any heretics that were to be


          found.  And any religious fanatics were to be arrested imprisoned and


          executed.  As I identified, the church generally, in fact, never


          really did the executions.  They were turned over to the arm of the


          church which of course was the secular, worldly governments.  All of


          this we actually had a change in the freedom of Europe.  If anything,


          the freedom of religion in Europe that had existed, at least the


          ability of people to question areas of the church, to post


          disagreements, were closed down.  In Protestant Europe people were


          eliminated for being Catholics and often executed as witches.


          Thousands of people were killed for their religious faiths or


          differences, Catholic against Protestant, Protestant against Catholic


          and against Protestants.  That sense of a unity of Europe was also


          destroyed.  That sense that we could now have one European Catholic


          society, we now broke down into a society where the faiths were


          determined according to the prince.


               In 1555 we began the peace settlement.  And out of that peace


          settlement itself came the treaty of Augsburg, came the belief or the


          agreement that the princes of the nations of northern Europe could


          identify their religion as Catholic or Lutheran.  So now you had the


          prince determining the religion.  And at that point, Charles the fifth


          retired to a monastery in 1556 and was followed in his power and



          control by his son Philip the second of Spain.  And we'll perhaps talk


          a little more about Philip later.  In a sense, a short range outcome


          of course was the violence and cruelty that broke out in Europe due to


          the reformation.  As I indicated, a sharp decline in the freedom of


          thought, the loss of rational ideas, toleration was eliminated,


          moderation destroyed, and the humanists of the renaissance in northern


          Europe was displaced by extremists.  There was tremendous


          redistribution of property from the clergy to the -- and the word for


          common people is laity, to the commoners, to capitalists, because much


          of the land previously was under Catholic control and wealth that was


          now described in the Protestant areas.  And there was some


          distribution in the Catholic areas for those who were perhaps seen as


          Protestants.  There was in a sense perhaps some might call it a




               There was a tremendous increase in religious enthusiasm.  The


          state had emerged, but now there was a rebirth of religion in Europe


          and Europe in a sense was Christianized but no longer unified as a


          Catholic world but yet Christian.  Long-range, there was a continued,


          as I said, fragmentation in Europe now.  A fragmentation continued in


          Germany until the 1870s.  A fragmentation of various nations that


          still continues although somewhat moderated by the European union that


          has accomplished.  And there was now a challenge by other religions


          even to Lutherism.  And it forced the Lutherans into a strong alliance


          with the state.  And there was no sense, by the end of the 16th


          century, of church/state separation as we begin to see finally



          occurring with the American revolution.  As I pointed out, Rome became


          far more religious, far more rigid, for more reactionary and far more


          dogmatic.  The Pope now, what he said, had to go.  And so that sense


          that had developed perhaps in Europe from the end of the Roman empire


          was there was a single faith, a single unit was, in a sense, destroyed


          forever.  Now we had a fragmentation of thought and territory.  Okay.


          We'll pick up on and continue with the age of exploration on