History 104A, December 7: Violating the Prime Directive


               Okay.  We're terminating today.  Pearl harbor today was the




          A    More people care about John Lennon's 25th anniversary tomorrow


          than they do about Pearl Harbor.


               THE PROFESSOR:  Who was he?  You had to answer me.


               In any case, we need some quiet before I can get started.  Knock


          knock.  Find my whistle.  We will have the exam on Monday from 9:30 to


          11:30, and hopefully I will remember to get up.  I am not a morning


          person.  I don't function -- I used to say I started functioning at


          11:00, but I actually haven't started functioning lately until more


          like 1:00.  In any case, you got copies, or at least I gave out copies


          of the take-home question.  There will be, as previously, two others


          that will cover the material this third of the class.  The last


          chapter in the textbook I actually enjoyed a lot.  I can't do three


          things at once, not anymore.  I guess because there is a lot of stuff


          I didn't know in it.  Of course that's one of the reasons why I enjoy


          teaching is that I'm constantly learning.  And one of the reasons why


          I change textbooks from time to time is because I learn from them,


          quite candidly.  In this one, it had a lot of stuff on the early


          exploration.  And I even like the nice little time line there


          worldwide as far as explorations are concerned, and certainly it will


          apply hopefully with my lecture, giving you some guidelines today for


          that take-home question.


               I like the part about the Polynesians and their movement.  I had



          no idea that they were a movement of the Polynesians into Madagascar.


          I guess I just find those strange things interesting.  In any case, up


          until about 1500, the ocean certainly served a major barrier to the


          world.  And to a large extent, that was due to a lack of the proper


          kind of ships that could sail out into the ocean.  Although, candidly,


          the Chinese had developed large sailing ships that could do and were


          capable of oceanic travel.  The real question that appears and one of


          the mysteries perhaps within limitation of the whole exploration is,


          why was it western Europe, basically a backwood people compared to the


          Chinese -- and those of you at western European descent, don't get


          pissed off at me for that comment.  I am not a racism.  The reason in


          part was, they say, somewhere in the middle of the 15th century there


          was a change of dynasties in China and returning to the concept that


          people come to us.  The Chinese have always had the sense that we are


          the center of the world and that the rest of the world comes and


          conquers us or whatever.  There wasn't that tremendous drive to head


          out into the oceans under that level.  But there was also another


          major factor that played a major role, and that was that again China


          was basically run by a Mandarin class in the sense that this was more


          of a bureaucratic, educational kind of dynasty, and the people were


          considered somewhat inferior were the merchants, the business field.


          The education, the learning, the knowledge was more important than, in


          their mind, than business itself, than making money.  And they had the


          goods and people came to them for the goods.  That's not to say that


          there wasn't a merchant class.  There sure was a merchant class.  But



          certainly I think even among certain Chinese today in the world, that


          training, the technological training, the educational training still


          has a status as above the shopkeeper, if you will.  Obviously no


          society can exist without all classes of people.  And China lacked


          that missionary zeal, the Christianity missionary zeal that western


          Europe had.


               To take it back to western Europe, we had the missionary zeal,


          the spread of Christianity.  Christ said, Don't hide your light under


          a barrel, go forth and spread it, what was a heavy sense of


          Christianity, to spread it, and a major force in the age of


          exploration.  Many have explained the age of exploration, if you will,


          as a crusade, to put forth Christianity.  And while I did not know it


          again, in reading the 16th chapter there, I was aware that Magellan


          had been killed in the Philippines and never made it in his


          circumcision of the world.  I went through that once before,


          circumnavigating.  However, I was not aware that he was killed


          fighting for another king who had promised to become a Christian.


          That will teach him.  And that his second in command also died a few


          days later fighting to bring Christianity.  I was aware of Cortes


          running up the pyramids at Cholula to break it and throw down the


          Gods.  It was almost a quest for Christ.  And Quetzalcoatl, for


          control of Central America, between the Aztec Gods and those of the


          Christian Gods.  Those are forces that we often don't take into


          account in this age of exploration, that sense of the missionary


          sense.  And in that concept of, call it bullionism first,



          mercantilism, capitalism, but economic explanation.


               Obviously, after the original crusades, Europe was desirous of


          eastern goods, not just the silk and the porcelain or the incense, but


          for the spices for preservation, for taste.  They became fixated on


          spices, whether or not the trade routes were cut up in 1553 to the


          Muslim to the Ottoman Turks.  They did have to pay more taxes.  It was


          not the Italian traders who were looking for this age of exploration.


          It was the jealousy coming out of the seafaring nations that looked


          out on the sea -- Portugal, what they now call Spain, England, who


          wanted to get a part of these riches.  And they certainly couldn't


          compete in the Mediterranean and certainly couldn't go forth across


          the continent of Asia in the competition that the Italians did.  Yeah,


          we know of Marco Polo.  We scream it every year in the pool during the


          summer.  I still can't understand that game.  Why in the world did


          somebody develop a game, Marco Polo?  I had never heard that until I


          came out west.


          A    You can't ever get anybody unless you cheat.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I always wondered about that banging into the


          pool or whatever.  It was really strange that this individual who was


          called a liar by the Italians, who set forth about 1275 with his


          uncles, and hearing a little bit about it and bringing back the


          stories of the wealth and the tall tales about carriages that went


          across China with winds blowing them, sort of the first sailing ships


          on land, if you will.  These kind of things people called him a liar


          because people couldn't believe that they were wealthy nations



          outside.  Of course we're happy for Marco Polo exploration because he


          brought back one of my favorite foods, spaghetti, with the Chinese


          noodles, so we have got a little heritage there.


               And then of course there was a search or Prestor John, again, a


          Christianity element there, not talking about wealth, but looking for


          a Christian ruler in the East, the last Christian tribes, if you will.


          Prestor John was in the coptic area which would be Ethiopia.  Others


          believe that this Prestor John, the search for Christians outside of


          Europe, may have been some of the nobles that had been either some of


          the tribes of Genghis Khan had been converted to Christianity and


          fought with crosses as they entered into Russia.  So the legends were


          there and stories.  We began to hear all the stories and writings and


          the adventuresome spirit.  There were stories of these weird cities.


          People were beginning to write novels and of course we had the


          printing press now and a move for literacy specially after 1517, after


          the age of exploration got under way.  But it certainly helped to


          expand it, talking about these beautiful cities and these cities of


          gold and the legends.  Okay, let's go find the Amazons, these women


          with one breast.  What could be more exciting?


          A    Two.


               THE PROFESSOR:  I did talk about that?


          Q    You said one?  Like in the middle?


               THE PROFESSOR:  No, not in the middle.  They apparently --


          everything in life is done with twos originally.  God created us as


          two.  Adam and Eve were basically the concept of two breasts.  Where



          does that come from?  But because the amazon woman were great


          warriors, pulling the bow, if they were somewhat bosom, I guess got in


          the way of their ability to --


          A    So they cut --


               THE PROFESSOR:  -- so they cut off one of the breasts to be able


          to fight better -- ouch.  Any more ouch than circumcision?  In any


          case, the stories of the amazon women, the stories of El Dorado, the


          king covered in gold, inspired this desire to move forth on wealth,


          but more the desire to get those goods from the East.


               The Portuguese may have been aware of the lands outside their


          territories because they saw various driftwoods and perhaps bodies


          after they moved, in the 1300s, to the Cape Verde islands, the


          Canaries, moving out into the Atlantic, this barrier.


               In 1385 a new dynasty took over, the Avis dynasty, and they were


          merchants basically.  They were looking for wealth.  And they


          sponsored exploration.  They sponsored the merchants.  They saw it --


          they became a merchants dynasty, not looking down upon it, but


          literally sponsoring it.  And from that dynasty, of course, they even


          have ties to the seafaring peoples of England, the king of Portugal's


          daughter was actually married to John of Gaunt who was an English


          nobleman related to the king of England and also a seafaring person.


          The brother of the King John or Joao became known as Prince Henry the


          navigator.  In 1415 the Portuguese, in their desire to get involved in


          the trade that was going across Africa to the famous trading capital


          in Africa called Timbuktu.  I always thought that was a myth that



          anybody would name their city Timbuktu.  It was always one of those


          jokes, but it really did exist as a trading city.  And so across the


          straits of Gibraltar into Morocco they captured, in 1415, the city of


          Cuda.  And from there, tried to make contact but simply could not with


          the Sahara trade in silk and spices and slaves.  And so Henry decided


          to build at a place called Sagres, a city or a university, if you


          will, to train pilots.  We're not talking about plane pilots, but the


          pilots on sailing ships.  And so starts, at around 1415, much earlier


          than Columbus, we began to see the beginnings of what is known for


          western Europe as the age of exploration.


               Why now were the Europeans, besides their interest in trade, able


          to set forth?  Well, they had gotten the campus which allowed them to


          go a little outside of the coastline.  Somewhere from the Muslims and


          from China, where around the 11th century; however, sailing ships did


          not exist as we know them.  Yes, they had sails, but they depended on


          rowers.  If the winds stopped and you were away from land, you were


          stuck there.  And more, so since you needed rowers, it was difficult


          to bring a lot of food aboard these ships and a lot of water.  You


          depend upon the coast so you could go in and get fresh water and


          supplies.  In the early 1400s they expanded on the sails.  They


          created what was known as the caravel.  Those are those beautiful


          multisailed ships that allowed the sailing ships to move with minimal


          wind and not worry about very much wind at all, even in almost dead


          seas.  And of course tied to this was another innovation, invention in


          the medieval period, and that is the rudder, the ability to shift



          direction, not just with the sails, but with the rudder as well to


          turn the ship.  And of course the development out of Spain of


          something known as the astrolabe, giving them the ability to judge


          latitude, so some sense of where they were.  The sailing ships, the


          caravels were really the basis of this age of exploration.  Because


          water, food, and animals -- sheep, cows, pigs -- were brought aboard


          these ships for colonists and perhaps during the darker side, the


          ability now to have a lot of space for bringing back slaves from


          Africa.  With rowing ships, there was very little room to bring even


          slaves back.  At this point now, the ships were empty and there was a


          place for them.  And so there were the positive and of course, from


          our perspective, the negative aspect.


               The Portuguese continued to move down the coast of Africa.  At


          around 1453, thereabouts, they moved around this bend here in Africa,


          reached as far as the area of Ghana.  And then, by 1488, Diaz went


          around the cape into the beginning of the Indian Ocean.  Here, of


          course, is Madagascar, about 300 miles off the shore of Africa, that


          was apparently settled by the same Polynesian peoples.  And after


          Columbus, in 1498, Vasco de Gama sailed to India, returned with lots


          of goods.  This is a beautiful poem called the lucids about the Vasco


          de Gama journeys.  It was based on the Aeneid from Troy that was


          supposedly the beginnings of the founding of Rome that I mentioned by


          Vergil.  Actually, Portuguese literature is very rich and exciting,


          but we don't know it very well here.  Some of the more interesting


          novels I've read come out of Portugal and Brazil.  We're sort of bound



          in our European novel.  Of course I didn't read them in Portuguese --


          no fala Portuguese.  In any case, this wealth that came out of this


          area, including of course slaves being brought back to Portugal, will


          explain why, in 1492, this individual married to the daughter of the


          governor at the Cape Verde islands, a guy named Columbus, was turned


          down by the crown of Portugal in his desire to go west across the


          Atlantic Ocean to prove that he could reach India and China by going




               Columbus then set forth on his journey to Spain.  We talked a


          little bit about that the other day.  And of course in 1492, on


          October 12th, they cited land in the Bahamas it's usually thought.


          Did anybody watch the new sci-fi flick, a series called triangle?  I


          love sci-fi so I was watching it.  I'm curious about something now.


          Part of the whole Bermuda triangle they say started with Columbus who,


          in his journal, writes about a massive metal crafted ship.  I think


          that's crap, but I get involved in these sort of weird stories, like


          the Bermuda triangle, the mysteries of life.


               Columbus made four journeys during a period of about 10 years and


          touched land on his third journey in South America.  It wasn't perhaps


          until after his fourth journey that he began to write and of course


          was imprisoned, began to write about the realization that he had hit a


          new world during his visits to the islands.  He still believed that he


          had reached Indian.  And of course because of that, we now have two


          Indians, sort of confusing, those from the nation named India and the


          indigenous people of America who we have no way of doing anything but



          calling them Indians at this point.


               What begins, more important for your journey today is, what's


          known as the Columbian exchange.  The whole basis of this exploration


          brings the world together, which translates to an exchange of food and


          animals, broadening our diet and even our health.  Europe lacked green


          vegetables and vegetables generally.  The Americas lacked, at least


          the South Americas lacked edible meat.  Yes, they had birds, and yes,


          they had llamas, but llamas aren't very edible, I understand, nor have


          they got a lot of meat on them.  North America did have of course the


          buffalo.  And yes, they had little dogs called chihuahuas, which


          certainly don't give a big meal either.  And so with the cattle that


          was -- the ships often came and left animals on the islands or on the


          coast for future colonists, so they would -- just almost like Noah's


          arc, so when the colonists came, there would be ready food supplies.


          Obviously, the exploration not only brought language differences,


          styles of art back and forth, vegetables -- corn and of course to the


          British all grains are called corn -- and it brought other things --


          tobacco.  Now, the Europeans could get cancer.  Of course it is said


          that the name tobacco comes from the Tobacco Indians that Sir Walter


          Raleigh met on the Roanoke island.  If he had gone into another


          direction, he would have run into another group called the marijuana


          Indians.  This Columbia exchange is important and just for the sake of


          the diversity of the world.


               In 1494, the Pope divided the world between Portugal and Spain.


          The first division, in 1493, didn't satisfy the Portuguese.  The Pope



          is of Spanish origin.  The treaty of Tordesillas gave what was often


          known as the royal patronage, the right of the Spanish and the


          Portuguese to collect the tithes, the money, to appoint their own


          bishops, which would explain in part why they didn't become part of


          the reformation.  This is the demarcation line.  It was argued that


          the Portuguese knew there was territory here, and they wanted that


          territory of Brazil.  In 1591 a man named Cabral apparently heading


          around Africa following Vasco de Gama was broken off course.  Most


          historians believe that this was intentionally done so that the


          Portuguese could effectively claim the occupation of the area known as


          Brazil from the Brazil wood that was brought back.  And of course


          parrots became very important coming into Portugal from Brazil.  And


          it became a wealthy area that the French later tried to take over.


               The land between here and Indonesia belonged to the Portuguese


          that was not already Christian.  And their job was to convert it to


          Christianity and get whatever wealth they could.  The land from this


          area across to the Philippines, basically Indonesia here belongs to


          the Spanish.  And their job also to convert to Christianity that


          crusade in a sense, if you will.  And of course with this comes a


          number of other historical issues that some of you will be dealing


          with Pizarro or Cortes or Balboa discovering the Pacific quote/unquote




               One, it's part of your questions for those who were going to take


          it; and two, we do have a group meeting to finalize the semester and


          give you your full 100-points to aid you on your grades.  I guess



          there's an outline that says match closed versus effective occupation.


          What that refers to is the close seas versus effective occupation.


          The Spanish and Portuguese claims the seas were there and nobody else


          could come in.  The Dutch and the English went in and said, you have


          to get us out of here, we effectively occupy it, and just dealing with


          that conflict.  Okay.  The sheets are down here, the group meeting is